Modifier নিয়ম শেয়ার করে রাখুন

Pre-modifier-এর উদাহরণসহ ব্যবহার দেখানো হলোঃ
1. Adjective as Pre-modifier: এক্ষেত্রে noun বা noun phrase-এর পূর্বে একটি adjective বসে উক্ত noun-কে modify করে। Adjective-এর এ ধরনের ব্যবহারকে attributive use বলা হয়। যেমন-
(a) Kalam gave him a nice picture.
(b) It was an attractive football-match.
2. Noun as Pre-modifier:
অনেক ক্ষেত্রে noun-ও noun-কে modify করে। যখন দুটি noun পাশাপাশি বসে, তখন প্রথম noun-টি দ্বিতীয় noun-টিকে modify করে। ফলে, এক্ষেত্রে প্রথম noun-টি noun হয়েও adjective-এর মতো কাজ করে। যেমন-
(a) Kabir went to a book fair.
(b) I have bought a book about science fiction.
(c) Trade Fair should be open to all.
3.Demonostratives as Pre-modifier:
Noun এর পূর্বে বসে Demonostrative Pronoun গুলো Pre-modifier এর কাজ করে ।
a) This pen is mine
** Participle as Pre-modifier:
আমরা জানি, participle সর্বদা adjective কিংবা adverb-এর কাজ করে থাকে। Participle তিন প্রকার যা pre-modifier হিসেবে কাজ করতে পারে। এগুলো নিম্নরূপঃ
4. Present Participle as Pre-modifier:
এটি verb-এর base form-এর সাথে ing যুক্ত হয়ে গঠিত হয়। এই present participle-টি noun-এর পূর্বে বসে adjective-এর কাজ করে। যেমন-
(a) He saw a running train.
(b) A barking dog seldom bites.
(c) A drowning man catches at a straw.
5. Past Participle as Pre-modifier:
এটি verb-এর past participle form দিয়ে গঠিত হয়। এই past participle-টি noun-এর পূর্বে বসে adjective-এর কাজ করে। যেমন-
(a) It was a written document.
(b) I have bought some rotten fishes.
(c) The signed letter was not sent.
6.Perfect Participle (Phrase) as Pre-modifier:
এটি having + verb-এর past participle form + অন্যান্য শব্দ দিয়ে গঠিত হয়। এই perfect participle phrase-টি কোন clause-এর পূর্বে বসে উক্ত clause-টিকে modify করে অর্থাত্ এটি adverb-এর কাজ করে। যেমন-
(a) Having defeated the soldiers, the Captain sent them to prison.
(b) Having taken her meal, Nowshin went to college.
(c) Having married, Neela went abroad with her husband.
7. Determiner as Pre-modifier: Determiner দ্বারা noun-কে নির্দেশ করা হয়। সাধারণত article (a, an, the) এবং demonstrative pronoun (this, that, these, those) গুলো determiner হিসেবে ব্যবহূত হয় যা noun-এর পূর্বে বসে adjective-এর কাজ করে। যেমন-
(a) Shushil purchased a mobile.
(b) The Meghna is a big river.
(c) She bought that pen yesterday.
(d) Those players were playing in the field.
8. Quantifier as Pre-modifier: Quantifier হলো noun-এর পরিমান (quantity) নির্দেশক শব্দ। Singular non-countable noun-এর quantifier হিসেবে সাধারণত much, little, a little, a great/good/vast/little amount of, a lot of, a lot, more, less, some, adequate, enough ইত্যাদি বসে এবং plural countable noun-এর quantifier হিসেবে সাধারণত many, some, few, a great/good number of, a lot of, a lot, three, ten, more, less, several, adequate, enough ইত্যাদি বসে। যেমন-
(a) She bought ten books from the book fair.
(b) I don't spend much money unnecessarily.
(c) Many students attended the seminar.
(d) Bill Gates has a lot of money.
9. Compound as Pre-modifier: দুই বা ততোধিক শব্দযোগে compound গঠিত হয় যা noun-এর পূর্বে বসে adjective-এর কাজ করে। Age-old, brand-new, school-going, out-of-order, out-dated, out-of-date, old-fashioned, back-dated, so-called, far-sighted, long-sighted, first-class, new-bo, long-term, short-term, quickly-done, slowly-passing, multi-coloured, multi-storeyed, cash-paid, newly-emerged, above-mentioned, well-constructed, well-paid, well-designed, well-known ইত্যাদি প্রচলিত কতগুলো compound. যেমন-
(a) Nishat has purchased a brand-new car.
(b) A hard-working man can prosper in life.
(c) His father possesses a back-dated idea.
(d) The govt. has given long-term loan to the poor.
10. Possessive as Pre-modifier: Possessive হলো my, your, his, her, our, their, its, own, Karim's, Shamima's ইত্যাদি যা noun-এর পূর্বে বসে adjective-এর কাজ করে। যেমন-
(a) Her sister is an MBBS.
(b) I have already got your idea.
(c) Everybody knows its price.
11. Adverb as Pre-modifier: Adverb হলো below, under, above, up, down, very, fast, last, early, late, then ইত্যাদি যা noun-এর পূর্বে বসে adjective-এর কাজ করে। তবে quickly, slowly, extremely, very, fast, last, soon, late, early, instantly, today, yesterday, here, there ইত্যাদি adverb কোন verb, adjective, adverb কিংবা পুরো sentence-এর পূর্বে বসে adverb-এর কাজ করে। যেমন-
(a) The then Principal signed this letter.
(b) The down train will go there.
(c) The above passage is very difficult.
(d) This is the very man you like to meet.
(e) The last man has already left the place.
(f) That question was very important.
(g) The lady walks extremely slowly.
(h) It is a quickly increasing market.
(i) Instantly he left the place.
(j) There she was waiting for him eagerly.
B. Post-modifier: যে modifier সাধারণত কোন noun বা noun phrase-এর পরে বসে তাকে post-modifier বলে। যেমনঃ Kumkum has bought a book written by Nazrul. এখানে written by Nazrul এই past participle phrase-টি book-কে modify করেছে; ফলে written by Nazrul হলো post-modifier.
বিভিন্ন ধরনের Post-modifiers:
নিম্নে বিভিন্ন ধরনের post-modifier-এর উদাহরণসহ ব্যবহার দেখানো হলোঃ
1. Adjective / Adjective Phrase as Post-modifier: এক্ষেত্রে noun বা noun phrase-এর পরে একটি adjective / adjective phrase বসে উক্ত noun-কে modify করে। যেমন-
(a) We made the room decorative.
(b) He did not find anything wrong in her behaviour.
(c) All the students present in the class protested the proposal.
2. Appositive as Post-modifier: যখন দুটি noun বা noun phrase পাশাপাশি বসে একই ব্যক্তি, বস্তু বা প্রাণিকে বুঝায় তখন দ্বিতীয় noun/noun phrase-টিকে প্রথম noun/noun phrase-টির appositive বা case in apposition বলা হয়। উল্লেখ্য যে, এক্ষেত্রে দ্বিতীয় noun/noun phrase-টি প্রথম noun/noun phrase সম্পর্কে অতিরিক্ত তথ্য প্রদান করে adjective-এর কাজ করে। যেমন-
(a) Babor, emperor of Delhi, was a pious man.
(b) Mr. Robin, the General Manager, is attending the party today.
(c) Everybody knows Kazi Nazrul Islam, a great poet in Bengali literature.
3. Participle (Phrase) as Post-modifier: Participle/
Participle phrase সর্বদা adjective কিংবা adverb-এর কাজ করে থাকে। Participle/Participle phrase তিন প্রকার যা pre-modifier-এর মতো post-modifier হিসেবেও কাজ করতে পারে। এগুলো নিম্নরূপঃ
(i) Present Participle (Phrase) as Post-modifier: Verb-এর base form-এর সাথে ing যুক্ত হয়ে present participle গঠিত হয়। আবার, verb-এর base form-এর সাথে ing + অন্যান্য শব্দ দিয়ে present participle phrase গঠিত হয়। এই present participle (phrase)-টি noun/pronoun-এর পরে বসে adjective-এর কাজ করে। যেমন-
(a) We found the boys playing.
(b) The man lying on the floor is a patient.
(c) He saw her going to market.
Read the following text and use modifiers as directed is the blank spaces.
As his reputation (a)——( post-modify the noun) soared higher and higher, fate followed (b)——( post-modify the verb). Stephen (c)——( pre-modify the verb) started losing control over the muscles of his body (d)——( post-modify the verb). (e)———( pre-modify the verb), he has been confined to a wheel chair with no power (f)——( post-modify the noun). He can speak (g)——( post-modify the verb) with a voice synthesiser (h)——(post-modify the noun). But Stephen is still a (i)——( pre-modify the noun) worker, using his computer (j)——( post-modify the verb).
Ans: a) as a great scientist b) with less rewarding things c) gradually d) as he gradually became a victim of Gehrig's disease e) since the age of thirty f)to control his body g) only through a computer h) that converts his messages into sounds i) relentless j) to carry out research work.
I experienced a very interesting incident
(a)——( post-modify the verb) on my way to Rangpur. My friend Rashed,(b)——(post-modify the noun with an appositive) was driving. A cow was crossing the road but suddenly in the middle of the road it stopped and remained standing. In a minute Rashed had to change his course but he did not have (c)——-( pre-modify the noun) time and space to do that. Rashed tried to tu in the left when the cow too walked
(d)——-( post-modify the verb) back a few steps. To save (e)——( use a demonstrative to pre-modify the noun) cow Rashed had to move in the right. He lost his control and bumped the car with a (f)——( use a noun adjective to pre-modify the noun) tree. (g)——( use a participle to pre-modify the verb). Rashed was shocked but he was (h)—-( use an intensifier to pre-modify the adjective) happy (i)——-( use an infinitive phrase to post-modify the verb). He patted the (j)——-(pre-modify the noun) cow and burst into laughter.
Ans: a) last week on my way to Rangpur b)a famous athlete was driving c) enough d) slowly e) that f) jackfruit tree g) seeing the damage in his new car h) very happy i) to save the cow j) naughty