1.General Objectives

These objectives are formulated by the teacher in his subject keeping in view the entering 

behaviors of the learners. For example: 1. to develop the knowledge of grammar among the 


2.Specific Objective

These objectives are formulated on the basis of general objectives and considering the 

nature of the topic and level of students. These are specified in terms of knowledge, skill or 

appreciation. These objectives are written in behavioral terms. For Example:(i) Students will 

be able to recall the definition of noun. (ii) Students will be able to enumerate the examples 

of noun.


Here, the teacher employs his insight and experiences for liking new knowledge with the 

previous knowledge of the students. The topic is not introduced directly but it is usually 

emitted by the students’ responses by asking introductory questions. 

4.Teaching Aids

Audio-visual aids are selected according to the proposed topic.

5.Previous knowledge

Students’ previous knowledge is mentioned. For example: Students are familiar with figure 

of speech. They know that nouns are naming words.

6.Statement of Aim

The teacher gives his statement of teaching topic by incorporating the students’ responses. 

For Example: “Today, we will study about the noun and its kinds.”


The teacher prepares the developing questions after introducing the topic. The question 

are arranged in logical sequence, i.e., from simple to complex, considering the structure of 

the topic.


The teacher is supposed to explain the answers of the given developing question. As whole 

of the content-matter is in the question-answer form.

9. Black board Summary

The teacher has to prepare the black-board summary of his teaching point and explanations.

10.Review Questions

The purpose of these questions is to practice the students’ learning and to evaluate their 

performance whether they have comprehended the teaching unit or not. These review 

questions are asked only after rubbing the black-board summary. For example: 

Q.1.What is the definition of Noun? 

Q.2. Give some examples of Noun…..

11.Home assignments

At the end of the lesson plan, home assignment is given to the students on the same 

teaching unit. The purpose of home work is to practice, to organize and to study the topic 

for better understanding and retention.


1.Organized Teaching

Each step has been organized in a logical order which provides an opportunity to the fresh 

teacher to become aware of future mistakes. Originality is never affected and the teaching 

goes on in a very organized way.

2.Acquiring thoughts as apperception.

Herbart believed that when the new thought related to the thoughts lying in unconscious 

mind of the pupils are presented, the thoughts of unconscious mind come to the conscious 

mind, establish relationship with the new thought and again go to the unconscious mind. 

Herbart termed this material process of acquiring thoughts as apperception.

3.Use of Inductive and Deductive Methods

While presenting the new knowledge, help of various examples is sought through 

generalization and rules are derived. It is an inductive method. In the step application, thesrules are to be executed, this is a deductive method. Thus, both indicative and deductive 

methods are used in this five steps approach.

4. Recapitulation

Such question is asked while recapitulating which, on answering, result in the learning and 

application of the acquired knowledge in new situations.

5. Correlation Possible

Herbart considered entire knowledge as a single unit. The knowledge of the pupils is 

acquired in a single unit. This allows to establishing a correlation between previous and new 

knowledge and between all subjects of the curriculum.


1.Mechanical Method of Teaching

The use of these steps takes away the freedom of the teacher as he cannot incorporate his 

independent thought in any step. This reduces his originality. Hence, Herbartian approach is 

a mechanical method of teaching.

2.No Place for Individual Differences

While using Herbartian approach. Similar questions are asked to the entire. This overlooks 

individual differences.

3.Useful in Knowledge Lesson only

Herbartian approach is useful in the knowledge lesson only, not in appreciation and skill 


4.Teacher More Active

In Herbartian approach, the teacher has to be more active. It is more desirable if the pupils 

remain more active than the teachers. As this teaching method is not activity-centered, 

pupils don’t get any motivation for learning.

5.No need of Generalization

Generalization is not needed while teaching language, geography, history, music and arts 

etc. Thus, all the five steps are not needed while teaching.


This approach stresses upon the teaching of all the subjects of curriculum in a similar 

sequence overlooking the interests, attitudes, abilities, and capacities of the pupils

according to their mental development. The entire teaching becomes monotonous. The